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Full text: Berlin`s economy in figures Issue 2015

Berlin‘s Economy in Figures
2015 Issue

Preface

Berlin – metropolis of the venturous
Our City is a magnet for people with bright ideas
who want to make a difference. Shaking things
up – that’s what motivates the people who come
to Berlin. The venturous are lured to Berlin in
search of a venue, where they can interact in an
international and intercultural ecosystem that is
one of a kind. We Berliners are proud of that.
It is as a result of its open-mindedness and receptiveness that makes Berlin the place where
a determined group of people can change the
world and its future. It is a metropolis of science
and creativity which breeds individuals who are
not satisfied with the conventional wisdom, and
want to venture into uncharted territory. They
set up businesses which mature and grow into a
new Mittelstand. This wealth of plans and ideas
makes our city exciting and dynamic: Characteristics which are essential to those who wish to
improve on what is there. Berlin’s economy in
figures 2015 provides facts and figures which
back up these claims, and illustrates what an exciting place this is to live in.
This is why more than 46,000 incomers p. 19 have
moved to the city in the last year alone, and nearly twelve million visitors p. 49 have chosen to
spend time here. There is evidence of Berlin’s
dynamism at every turn: in the more than 2,000
residential buildings p. 22 completed last year, in
the 41,400 new enterprises p. 14 – and of course in

Dr. Eric Schweitzer,
President of the CCI Berlin,
and Stephan Schwarz,
President of the Chamber
of Skilled Crafts Berlin

Berlin’s labour market, where 38,000 new jobs p. 25
were created. Nothing seems to be curbing the
growth in employment in Berlin. And that upward trend is precisely what our city needs – for
the unemployment rate continues to be high
in comparison with the rest of Germany p. 27,
purchasing power p. 13 is relatively low, and public debt p. 71 burdensome. This is the problematic
side of Berlin – and one we must all strive to put
right.
As you read on, you will come across numerous
other examples indicative of the character of
our city. So imagine what Berlin is and what it
should be like – and stay venturous.

Dr. Eric Schweitzer	

Stephan Schwarz
3

Content

Preface	3

4

Section 1: The Berlin economy – structure and trends	
Gross domestic product of the federal states 2014	
Gross domestic product in Berlin, Brandenburg and Germany 2004–2014	
Gross domestic product per capita by federal state 2014	
Structural shifts in the Berlin economy	
Gross value added in Berlin 2014	
Productivity by federal state 2014	
Disposable income per resident in Berlin	
Settlement and investment projects in Berlin 2014	
Foreign direct investment per capita 2013	

6
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
10
10

Section 2: Area and population	
Population development, Berlin conurbation 2004–2014	
Age structure in Berlin, selected federal states and Germany 2013	
Non-German population by origin 2014	

11
11
11
12

Section 3: Berlin labour market	
All employees and employees subject to compulsory social insurance in Berlin 2004–2014	
Comparison of working population in Berlin, 1994 and 2014	
Unemployment rates 2004–2014	
Unemployment rates by federal state 2014	
Top 100 employers in Berlin	

13
13
13
14
14
15

Section 4: Skilled crafts in Berlin	
Total number of companies registered with the Chamber of Skilled Crafts	
Entrepreneurs of foreign origin registered with the Chamber of Skilled Crafts	
Apprentices in Berlin 2004–2014	
Passed master craftsman examinations in Berlin 2004–2014	

18
18
18
19
19

Section 5: Berlin Chamber of Commerce and Industry	
CCI members in Berlin by economic sector	
CCI members in Berlin by borough 	
Companies listed in the Berlin company register	
Small businesses in Berlin	

20
20
20
21
21

Section 6: Sectors in Berlin	
Development of gross value added per working hour 2008–2014	
Revenue and employment trends in manufacturing 2007–2014	
Revenue in real terms and employment trends in retail 2014–2015	
Revenue and employment trends in construction 2007–2014	
Development of passenger numbers in air traffic 2004–2014	
Number of Berlin visitors and overnight stays 2004–2014	
Berlin tourists from abroad by country 2004–2014	
Structure of the Berlin service sector 2013	

22
22
22
23
24
24
25
25
26

Section 7: Business Clusters in Berlin-Brandenburg	
Healthcare industry cluster in Berlin and Brandenburg	
ICT, media and creative industries cluster in Berlin and Brandenburg	
Transport, mobility and logistics industries cluster in Berlin and Brandenburg	
Optical industries cluster (including microsystems engineering) in Berlin and Brandenburg	
Power engineering cluster in Berlin and Brandenburg	

27
27
27
28
28
29

Section 8: Berlin education	
Top ten sales and other training occupations 2014 at the CCI Berlin	
Top ten commercial-technical training occupations 2014 at the CCI Berlin	
Recognition of foreign vocational qualifications at the CCI Berlin	
Recognition of foreign vocational qualifications at the Chamber of Skilled Crafts Berlin	

30
30
30
31
31

Section 9: Science location Berlin	
Science institutions in Berlin	
Public and private R&D staff 2013	
R&D staff in the private sector 2013	
R&D expenditures in the private sector 2013	
R&D in Berlin’s SMEs and large companies 2011 and 2013	
Students from abroad by federal state	
Third-party funds raised per professor by federal state 2012	
Patent applications by federal state, 2014	
University-spin-offs in Berlin-Brandenburg	

32
32
32
33
33
34
35
35
36
36

Section 10: Foreign trade in Berlin	
Berlin imports by top-ten commodity groups 2014	
Berlin exports by top-ten commodity groups 2014	
Berlin imports by country 2013/2014	
Berlin exports by country 2013/2014	
Export ratio by federal state 2014	

37
37
37
38
38
39

Section 11: Berlin-Brandenburg	
Population development in Berlin conurbation 2004-2014	
Taxable turnover in Berlin and Brandenburg, 2005 and 2013 	
Unemployment rate in Berlin and Brandenburg as of June 2015	

40
40
40
41

The symbiotic relationship between Berlin and Brandenburg	
Gross value added in Berlin and Brandenburg 2014	
Economic structure in Berlin and Brandenburg 2014	
Private R&D expenditures per R&D employee 2013	

42
42
42
42

Explanations	44
Geographical terms relating to the region 	
44
Abbrevations	45
Imprint	46

5

Section 1: The Berlin economy – structure and trends

Gross domestic product of the federal states 2014*
percentage change from previous year, in real terms
2.5 %
2.2

2.0 %

1.6

1.5 %

1.0 %
0.9

0.5 %
Source: macroeconomic
accounts of the federal
states, April 2015

0%

ST

HB

BB

RP

NI

SL

NW HE

MV

TH

DE

HH

SH

BY

SN

BE

BW

* results according to preliminary calculation
abbreviations see page 45

Gross domestic product in Berlin, Brandenburg and Germany 2004–2014
percentage change from previous year, in real terms
6.0 %
4.0 %
2.0 %

1.2

2.2*
1.6*
0.9*

1.7

0.0 %
-2.0 %
Source: macroeconomic
accounts of the federal
states, April 2015

-1.2

-4.0 %
-6.0 %

2004

2005

Germany

2006

2007
Berlin

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Brandenburg
* results according to preliminary calculation

6

Gross domestic product per capita* by federal state 2013
at current prices in euros
60,000
50,000

24,231

31,504

30,000

34,219

40,000

20,000
10,000
0

Source: macroeconomic
accounts of the federal
states, April 2015

MV

TH

ST

BB

SN

SH

RP

NI

BE

SL

NW DE

BW

HE

BY

HB

HH

* results according to preliminary calculation
abbreviations see page 45

Structural shifts in the Berlin economy
contribution of individual sectors to gross value added at current prices in million euros
120,000
105,478
83.6 %

100,000
84,993

80,000

76,703
80.9 %

82.9 %

19.1 %

17.1 %

2000

2007

60,000
40,000
20,000
0

manufacturing*

16.4 %

Source: macroeconomic
accounts of the federal
states, April 2015

2014

services
* Since the gross value added generated by agriculture,
forestry and fisheries in Berlin is relatively low, it is contained in manufacturing.

7

Section 1: The Berlin economy – structure and trends

Gross value added in Berlin 2014
by economic sector
manufacturing*
(without construction) – 12.5 %
construction – 3.9 %
trade, transportation and warehousing,
accomodation and food service activities,
information and communication – 21.3 %
finance, insurance and business services,
real estate activities – 31.2 %
public and other service providers,
education and health,
private households – 31.0 %

105.5 bn euros

Source: Berlin-Brandenburg State Office for
Statistics, April 2015
* Since the gross value added generated by agriculture,
forestry and fisheries in Berlin is relatively low, it is contained in manufacturing.

Productivity by federal state 2014
gross domestic product per working hour of labour force at current prices in euros
70
60
50

49.7
46.1

40

39.5

30
20
Source: macroeconomic
accounts of the federal
states, April 2015

10
0

TH

MV

SN

ST

BB

SH

BE

NI

RP

SL

DE

NW

BY

BW

HB

HE

HH

abbreviations see page 45

8

Disposable income per resident* in Berlin
in euros and relative to the German average
in euros

in percent

20,000

17,000

100
95

94 %

14,000

90
86 %

11,000

85

8,000

80

5,000

75

2,000

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
disposable income
per capita in euros

70

Source: macroeconomic
accounts of the federal
states, June 2015

disposable income per capita
relative to the federal average (Germany = 100 %)
* vital statistics prior to census 2011

Income is still growing too sluggishly
Since 2000, the average income available to
Berliners to spend and save has increased by
18 percent. The German average increased
by almost 30 percent, while in the neighbouring state of Brandenburg, the figure has even
reached 35 percent. This rise in average income
illustrates that despite making progress, Berlin’s
economy has not yet finished it’s transformational process. It is true that we have seen some
very rapid growth spurts since the mid of the
recent decade. But the city’s transformation

into a centre of highly-productive business activity has only just begun. A substantial share of
the economic growth of recent years resulted
from the increase in the number of man-hours
worked, in particular through the creation of
additional jobs. However with the exception of
a few sectors such as manufacturing, the growth
in productivity has remained muted – and has
even stagnated in some years.

9

Section 1: The Berlin economy – structure and trends

Settlement and investment projects in Berlin 2014
subdivided into clusters and economic sectors

578.9 m euros
of investments

5,670
new jobs

234
business projects

Source: Berlin Partner for
Business and Technology,
January 2015

healthcare industry

energy

services

media, information and
communications, technology, creative industries

transport, mobility,
logistics
optics

manufacturing*

*companies not involved in the Berlin-Brandenburg business clusters

Foreign direct investment per capita 2013
stock and percentage change from previous year
25 %
20 %
15 %
10 %
5%
0%
Source: Central Bank of
the Federal Republic of
Germany, Federal Statistical Office of Germany,
June 2015,
own calculations

-5 %

-8.0

-10 %
-13.0

-15 %
-20 %
-25 %

HB

BE

BB

BY

HH

SN

HE

BW

TH

RP

MV

ST

SL

SH

NI

NW

abbreviations see page 45

10

Section 2: Area and population

Population development, Berlin conurbation 2004–2014
census 2011

3,466,164

4,245,868
3,387,828

4,000,000

3,000,000

4,397,433

5,000,000

2,000,000

858,040

0

931,269

1,000,000

2004

2005

Berlin

2006

2007

2008

2009

Berlin outer conurbation*

2010

2011

2012

2013

Source: Berlin-Brandenburg State Office for
Statistics, June 2015,
own calculations

2014**

Berlin conurbation*
* explanations see page 44f
** as of: 30 November, 2014

Age structure in Berlin, selected federal states and Germany 2013
share of age classes
35 %
30 %
25 %
20 %
15 %
10 %
Source: Federal Statistical
Office of Germany,
June 2015,
own calculations

5%
0%

under 18 years
Berlin

18 to 29 years
Hamburg

30 to 49 years

50 to 64 years

Brandenburg

Germany

65 years
and older

11

Section 2: Area and population

Non-German population by origin 2014
share of total registered non-German residents in Berlin by region of origin
European Union

4%
1%

6%

other parts of Europe

2%

Asia
America
41 %

15 %

Africa
Australia/Oceania
stateless/unclarified

Source: Berlin-Brandenburg State Office for
Statistics, February 2015

32 %

Total percentages may be more or less than 100 % owing to rounding up and down.

Berlin: a cosmopolitan city
A total of 16.5 percent of Berlin’s population were
not born in Germany, well above the national
average of 8.9 percent. More than 50,000 people
have Polish citizenship, putting them in second
place behind the some 100,000 Turks who live
here, and who continue to represent the largest
foreign group in the city. Polish immigration is
by no means a recent phenomenon: people used
to come here to escape poor economic conditions in Poland. Now it is mainly well-educated
skilled workers who come to enjoy the freedoms
offered by the EU. The German capital is an

attractive destination, particularly because it is
not far from their Polish homeland. The number
of people migrating from Asia has grown especially dramatically in comparison with 2013:
8,000 Asians now call Berlin their home. The civil
war in Syria has seen a steady increase in the
number of people with Syrian citizenship coming
to our city: from 3,719 in 2013 to 6,471 today*
– a fifth of whom are children and young people
under the age of 15. The city’s Chinese, Indian,
Israeli and Afghan population has also increased.
* as of 31 December, 2014

12

Section 3: Berlin labour market

All employees and employees subject to compulsory social insurance in Berlin 2004–2014
annual average
1,850,000

1,805,400

1,750,000
1,650,000
1,550,000

1,554,700
1,556,700

1,450,000
1,350,000
1,250,000

1,287,841

1,150,000
1,050,000
95,0000

1,044,827
1,030,230

2004*

2005*

2006*

1,076,080

2007

2008

employees subject to compulsory
social insurance

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Source: Federal Employment Agency of Germany,
July 2015,
Employment calculation
of the federal and state
government,
February 2015

2014

employees

*The Federal Employment Agency has revised the labour market statistics not prior to the year 2007.
Due to this the comparability of the two time series is restricted.

Comparison of working population in Berlin, 1994 and 2014
share of working population by economic sector
8%

14 %

5%

33 %

9%

39 %

2014

1994

27 %

26 %
17 %
22 %

manufacturing* (without construction)
construction
trade, transport, storage, accomodation
and food service activities, restaurants,
information and communication

Source: Berlin-Brandenburg State Office for
Statistics, May 2015

financing-, insurance and company
service providers, real estate activities
public and other service providers,
education and health, private households

* Since the gross value added generated by agriculture, forestry and fisheries in Berlin is relatively low, it is contained in
manufacturing (without construction). Total percentages may be more or less than 100 % owing to rounding up and down.

13

Section 3: Berlin labour market

Unemployment rates 2004–2014
based on all civilian labour force, annual average
20 %

19.0

18.7

18 %

18.2

17.7

16 %
14 %
11.7

12 %

11.1

10.5

10 %
Source: Federal Employment Agency of Germany,
January 2015

9.4

8%
6.7

6%

2004

2005

2006

Germany

2007

2008

Berlin

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Brandenburg

Unemployment rates by federal state 2014
based on all civilian labour force, annual average
16 %
14 %
12 %
10 %

11.1

11.2

BE

MV

9.4

8%
6.7

6%
4%
Source: Federal Employment Agency of Germany,
January 2015

2%
0%

BY

BW

RP

HE

NI

DE

SH

SL

HH

TH

NW SN

BB

ST

HB

abbreviations see page 45

14

Top 100 employers in Berlin
as of 31 December, 2014
company name

employees
in Berlin

total number
of employees

headquarter
in Berlin

1 Deutsche Bahn AG

19,466

306,966

yes

2 Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin

16,800

16,800

yes

3 Vivantes Netzwerk für Gesundheit GmbH

14,714

14,714

yes

4 Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG) – AöR –

13,776

13,776

yes

5 Siemens AG

11,818

341,000

yes 1

6 Deutsche Telekom AG

6,833

225,000

7 EDEKA Minden-Hannover Stiftung & Co. KG

6,831

8 Deutsche Post DHL Group

6,500

9 WISAG-Gruppe

6,466 3

2

336,100

no
2

no

480,000

no

not specified

no

10 Daimler AG

6,203

279,972

11 Dussmann Group

5,950

12 Kaiser´s Tengelmann GmbH

5,908

16,622

no

13 Vattenfall AB

5,500

32,000

no

14 Berliner Stadtreinigung

5,379

5,379

yes

15 Securitas Gruppe

5,160

310,000

no

16 METRO GROUP

4,836

264,865

no

17 Axel Springer SE

4,833

14,476

yes

18 Gegenbauer Holding SE & Co. KG

4,744

15,197

yes

19 Berliner Wasserbetriebe

4,523

4,523

yes

20 Bayer Pharma AG

4,500

110,000 5

yes

21 Kaufland Dienstleistung GmbH & Co. KG

4,200

147,300

no

22 Deutsche Bank AG

4,000

98,138

23 HELIOS Kliniken Gruppe

3,836

68,000

24 Berliner Sparkasse

3,742

3,742

yes

25 Paul Gerhardt Diakonie e. V., Berlin und Wittenberg

3,492

4,781

yes

26 DRK Kliniken Berlin

3,410

3,410

yes

27 Karstadt Gruppe

3,028

22,523

no

28 Alexianer GmbH

3,013

12,878

no

29 Zalando SE

3,000

7,500

yes

3,4

64,708

no
4

6

yes

no
7

yes

30 Deutsche Lufthansa AG

2,900

119,000

no

31 REWE Markt GmbH

2,850

90,000

no

32 Lidl Dienstleistung GmbH & Co. KG

2,801

70,000 8

no

33 Netto Marken-Discount AG & Co. KG

2,798

72,883

no

34 Evangelisches Johannesstift SbR

2,783

3,287

yes

35 Allianz

2,778

147,425

no

36 Air Berlin PLC & Co. Luftverkehrs KG

2,700

8,400

yes

37 BIOTRONIK Unternehmensgruppe

2,600

5,600

yes

38 McDonald's Deutschland Inc.

2,574

1,8 Mio

no

3

8

15

Section 3: Berlin labour market

company name

16

employees
in Berlin

total number
of employees

headquarter
in Berlin

39 UNIONHILFSWERK

2,512

2,557

yes

40 BMW Group

2,400

116,300

no

41 3B Dienstleistungsgruppe

2,300

3,300

yes

42 Commerzbank AG

2,294

52,103

no

43 Mosaik-Unternehmensverbund

2,244

2,259

yes

44 AOK Nordost – Die Gesundheitskasse

2,175

5,559

no

45 AWO Landesverband Berlin e. V.

2,130 9

2,130

yes

46 Bundesdruckerei GmbH

2,033

2,232

yes

47 Randstad Deutschland

2,000

609,000

no

48 Berliner Werkstätten für Menschen mit Behinderung GmbH (BWB)

1,962

1,962

49 Deutsche Kreditbank AG (DKB)

1,940

50 Manpower GmbH & Co. KG Personaldienstleistungen

1,850

620,000

51 BT Berlin Transport GmbH

1,775

1,775

52 dm-drogerie markt GmbH + Co. KG

1,749

52,062

53 GRG Services Berlin GmbH & Co. KG

1,710

54 Berliner Volksbank eG

1,705

3

3

3,116

yes
8

yes
no
yes

10

no

3,400

yes

1,986

yes

55 KPMG AG Wirtschaftsprüfungsgesellschaft

1,673

162,000

yes

56 EJF gemeinnützige AG

1,670

2,850

yes

57 Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg (rbb)

1,657 3

1,971

58 DIRK ROSSMANN GMBH

1,540

44,000

59 Deutsche Postbank AG

1,500

14,800

no

60 PAREXEL International GmbH

1,500

16,000

no

Unfallkrankenhaus Berlin Verein für Berufsgenossenschaftliche
61
Heilbehandlung Berlin e. V.

1,486

1,486

yes

62 Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, Stiftung des bürgerlichen Rechts

1,463

1,463

yes

63 BERLIN-CHEMIE AG

1,430

5,588

yes

64 Philip Morris GmbH

1,400

2,400

no

65 Vitanas Gruppe

1,373

4,163

yes

66 Volkssolidarität Landesverband Berlin e. V.

1,354

16,714 12

yes

67 Piepenbrock Unternehmensgruppe

1,347

26,606

no

68 GASAG-Gruppe

1,334

1,595

yes

69 BASF

1,300

113,000

no

70 TOTAL Gruppe

1,278

100,000

no

71 OSRAM GmbH

1,248

33,800

no

72 Lebenshilfe Berlin

1,188

1,188

yes

73 Knorr-Bremse Group

1,175

23,196

74 IKEA Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG

1,162

147,000

75 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH

1,160

1,160

76 degewo Aktiengesellschaft

1,159

1,159

yes

77 Coca-Cola Deutschland

1,126

770,000 14

yes

78 Evangelisches Krankenhaus Königin Elisabeth Herzberge gGmbH

1,126

1,126

yes

3,10

yes
11

no

no
13

no
yes

company name

employees
in Berlin

total number
of employees

headquarter
in Berlin

79 BARMER GEK

1,123 3

16,186 8

yes

80 ERGO Versicherungsgruppe AG

1,102

28,019

no

81 ALBA Group plc & Co. KG

1,100

8,000

yes

82 Clemens Kleine Gebäudeservice GmbH

1,077

10,200

yes

83 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH

1,072

110,000

no

84 PIN Mail AG

1,071

1,071

yes

85 IAV GmbH

1,000

6,300

yes

86 TÜV Rheinland Group

1,000

19,300

no

87 Sodexo Services GmbH

987

420,000

no

88 Lelbach-Gruppe

967

2,800

yes

89 OTIS Gruppe

915

62,000

90 Franz Cornelsen Bildungsgruppe

911

1,859

yes

91 Bär & Ollenroth-Gruppe

894 3

894

yes

838

195,433

no

92

PricewaterhouseCoopers Aktiengesellschaft Wirtschafts­
prüfungsgesellschaft

yes 15

93 Ernst & Young GmbH Wirtschaftsprüfungsgesellschaft

827

203,696

no

94 Schlosspark-Klinik GmbH

825

825

yes

95 B. Braun Melsungen AG

805

54,017

no

96 GE Energy Power Conversion GmbH

789

7,800

no

97 Pfefferwerk Stadtkultur gemeinnützige GmbH

789

789

yes

98 Immanuel Diakonie GmbH

782

3,032

yes

99 Capita (Berlin) 16

780

6,500

yes

774

49,876 17

no

100 BSH Hausgeräte GmbH Technologiezentrum Wäschepflege

Source: CCI Berlin,
July 2015

Figures based on information provided by companies.

1) headquarters in Berlin and Munich

10) declaration day: 30 September, 2014

2) including independent retailers

11) as of: 15 April, 2015

3) in Berlin and Brandenburg

12) headquarters in Berlin and Potsdam

4) average 2014

13) declaration day: 21 August, 2014

5)	Bayer-Konzern worldwide

14) The Coca-Cola Company including its licence partner

6) in europe

15) German headquarters of OTIS Deutschland in Berlin

7) as of: April, 2015

16) until 2014 avocis Deutschland GmbH

8) nationwide

17) declaration day: 21 December, 2013

9) declaration day: 6 May, 2015

17

Section 4: Skilled crafts in Berlin

Total number of companies registered with the Chamber of Skilled Crafts
development in the past year
as of
31 December 2013

entries
2014

deletions
as of
2014 31 December 2014

change
in %

main elements of the
construction trade

5,127

395

693

4,829

- 298

- 5.8

12,618

969

1,256

12,331

- 287

- 2.3

trades for commercial needs

4,076

581

570

4,087

+ 11

+ 0.3

automotive trades

1,592

86

111

1,567

- 25

- 1.6

435

40

34

441

+ 6

+ 1.4

finishing elements of the
construction trade

food trades

Source: Chamber of
Skilled Crafts Berlin,
January 2015

health industry
personal services
total

841

31

53

819

- 22

- 2.6

6,358

556

555

6,359

+ 1

+ 0.0

31,047

2,658

3,272

30,433

- 614

- 2.0

Entrepreneurs of foreign origin registered with the Chamber of Skilled Crafts
as of 31 December, 2014
finishing elements of the
construction trade – 1,477
trades for commercial needs – 916
personal services – 900

4,050

main elements of the
construction trade – 548
automotive trades – 138
food trades – 59
health industry – 12

Source: Chamber of
Skilled Crafts Berlin,
January 2015

18

Apprentices in Berlin 2004–2014
skilled crafts by gender
25,000

20,000
15,274

15,267

15,048

14,125

13,055

4,337

3,927

3,497

3,200

2,969

2,722

7,879

8,410

9,128

9,788

10,451
4,597

10,604
4,663

9,706

4,626

10,385

4,833

0

11,079

4,924

5,000

10,648

10,000

10,878

11,563

11,907

6,984

15,711

15,000

7,416

16,487

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

male

Source: Chamber of
Skilled Crafts Berlin,
January 2015

total

female

Passed master craftsman examinations in Berlin 2004–2014
skilled crafts by gender
600
489

481

497
460

405

400

455

419

345

300

322

303

284

275

383

352

300

403

335

366

305

386

409

302

500

male

2007

female

2008

2010

2011

131

114

154
104

2009

2012

103

2006

115

0

117

2005

102

2004

68

91

100

95

200

2013

2014

Source: Chamber of
Skilled Crafts Berlin,
January 2015

total

19

Section 5: Berlin Chamber of Commerce and Industry

CCI members* in Berlin
by economic sector, as of 31 December, 2014
companies listed in the Berlin
company register

small businesses
in Berlin

total number

manufacturing

4,312

3,000

7,312

energy and waste disposal

1,149

1,113

2,262

construction

3,293

14,760

18,053

16,797

36,438

53,235

1,971

6,740

8,711

trade
transportation and storage
accomodation and food service activities

3,529

11,059

14,588

10,204

12,500

22,704

4,500

6,815

11,315

business services

31,748

50,724

82,472

personal services

18,584

33,519

52,103

873

638

1,511

96,960

177,306

274,266

information and communication
finance and insurance

Source: CCI Berlin,
January 2015

miscellaneous
total

* Excluding second and further commercial activities or other dependent business premises.

CCI members* in Berlin**
by borough, as of 31 December, 2014
50,000

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000
Source: CCI Berlin,
January 2015

0

MaHe

Span

Lich

Rein

TrKö

StZe

Neuk

TSch

FrKr

Pank

Mitt

ChWi

* Excluding second and further commercial activities or other dependent business premises.
** Due to difficulties in assignments to boroughs, the sum of borough members may differ from the total number of CCI members.
abbreviations see page 45

20

Companies listed in the Berlin company register
by economic sectors, as of 31 December, 2014
manufacturing – 4.4 %
energy and waste disposal – 1.2 %
construction – 3.4 %
trade – 17.3 %
transportation and storage – 2.0 %
accomodation and food
service activities – 3.6 %

96,960

information and communication – 10.5 %
finance and insurance – 4.6 %
business services – 32.7 %
personal services – 19.2 %
miscellaneous – 0.9 %

Source: CCI Berlin,
January 2015

Total percentages may be more or less than 100 % owing to rounding up and down.

Small businesses in Berlin
by economic sectors, as of 31 December, 2014

177,306

manufacturing – 1.7 %
energy and waste disposal – 0.6 %
construction – 8.3 %
trade – 20.6 %
transportation and storage – 3.8 %
accomodation and food
service activities – 6.2 %
information and communication – 7.0 %
finance and insurance – 3.8 %
business services – 28.6 %
personal services – 18.9 %
miscellaneous – 0.4 %

Source: CCI Berlin,
January 2015

Total percentages may be more or less than 100 % owing to rounding up and down.

21

Section 6: Sectors in Berlin

Development of gross value added per working hour 2008–2014
indices 2010 = 100, in real terms
110
106.9
105.6

105

103.2

100

98.9
95.1

95
90
85

Source: macroeconomic
accounts of the federal
states, April 2015

80

2008

2009

2010

2011

manufacturing (without construction)
construction
finance, insurance and business
services, real estate activities

2012

2013

2014

trade, transportation and storage,
accomodation and food service activities,
information and communication
public and other services, education and health,
individual households

Revenue and employment trends in manufacturing 2007–2014
local companies with 20 and more employees
100,000

90,221

85,000

5,000

80,000

2007

11,201

0

2008

2009

2010

2011

foreign revenue
in million euros

2012

2013
employees

12,949

10,000

domestic revenue
in million euros
22

95,000

90,000

10,503

Source: Berlin-Brandenburg State Office for
Statistics, June 2015

15,000

93,532

18,165

revenue in million euros

20,000

2014

75,000

employees

25,000

Revenue in real terms and employment trends in retail 2014–2015
indices 2010 = 100
revenue

employees

130

500

400

120

300

110

200

100

100

90

0

Jan.
2014

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

retail
without motor vehicles

June

July

Aug.

Sep.

online businesses

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.
2014

Jan.
2015

Feb.

Mar.

80

Source: Berlin-Brandenburg State Office for
Statistics, March 2015

employees

Retail sales remain at a high level
Retail businesses in Berlin benefit from favourable local conditions and the dynamic growth in
the economy and labour market as well as from
strong domestic demand. Thus sales increased by
25 percent between 2010 and 2014. In a yearon-year comparison, the high-spending months
of December and March stand out in particular,
as turnover is traditionally higher at Christmas
and Easter than over the rest of the year. It is
interesting to note that turnover in December
2014 was 20 percent up on the same month
in the previous year. The Easter celebrations in
2015 also saw a 12 percent increase in retail
sales compared with the year before. There is
no end in sight to the remarkable way in which

online businesses have flourished. Online trade
is now estimated to account for between eleven
and twelve percent of total retail sales in Berlin.
In this respect the city is keeping pace with the
current trend in the rest of Germany: since 2009,
such sales have risen nationally by 3.9 percent
to reach 11.1 percent. Despite tough competition from online businesses, sales have remained
stable in Berlin’s retail premises. Time will tell the
extent to which these businesses too will turn
to new technology to assist with making sales,
communicating with customers and marketing
their products, thereby perpetuating the sector’s
positive success story.

23

Section 6: Sectors in Berlin

Revenue and employment trends in construction 2007–2014

Source: Berlin-Brandenburg State Office for
Statistics, May 2015

4,000

23,000

3,500

22,000
21,000
20,000

2,000

2,108

2,534

2,500

19,000

1,500

17,729

18,000

1,000

17,000

500

16,000

0

2007

2008

2009

number of companies

2010

2011

2012

2013

revenue in million euros

2014

15,000

employees

Development of passenger numbers in air traffic 2004–2014
Berlin compared to other major German airports, indices 2004 = 100
220
200
188

180
160
149
148
143

140
120
Source: German Airports
Association,
December 2014

116

100
80

2004

2005

Berlin

24

2006

2007

Frankfurt a.M.

2008

2009

2010

Munich

2011

2012

Hamburg

2013

2014
Dusseldorf

employees

20,667
2,889

3,000

3,200

number of companies and revenue in million euros

companies with 20 or more employees

Number of Berlin visitors and overnight stays 2004–2014
in millions

28.7

30
25
20

13.3

15

7.4

10

4.3
1.6

4.5

5
0

2004

2005

2006

2007

domestic guests

2008

2009

foreign guests

2010

2011

2012

2013

Source: Berlin-Brandenburg State Office for
Statistics, March 2015

2014

overnight stays

Berlin tourists from abroad by country 2004–2014
number of overnight stays per annum
1,500,000

1,200,000

900,000

600,000

300,000
Source: Berlin-Brandenburg State Office for
Statistics, December 2014

0
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

United Kingdom

Netherlands

Spain

Italy

USA

Denmark

2012

2013

2014

France

25

Section 6: Sectors in Berlin

Structure of the Berlin service sector 2013
number of companies and employees
miscellaneous professional, scientific and
technical services – 24,227
information and communication – 7,717
provision of other commercial
services – 7,117
real estate activities – 5,766

companies

transportation and storage – 2,933

miscellaneous professional, scientific and
technical services – 127,955
information and communication – 64,232
provision of other commercial
services – 159,238
real estate activities – 26,831

employees*

transportation and storage – 72,109

Source: Berlin-Brandenburg State Office for
Statistics, July 2015
* number of employees as of 30 September, 2013

26

Section 7: Business Clusters in Berlin-Brandenburg

Healthcare industry cluster in Berlin and Brandenburg
100 %

37

15

36

90 %
85

80 %
70 %
60 %

64

63

50 %
40 %
30 %
Source: Senate of Berlin,
Department for Economy,
Technology and Research,
July 2015

20 %
10 %
0%

20,902 companies*

321,601 employees**
in Brandenburg

in Berlin

20.2 revenue
(in billion euros)*
* as of 2012
** as of 2013

ICT, media and creative industries cluster in Berlin and Brandenburg
100 %

21

27

19

90 %
80 %

81

79

70 %

73

60 %
50 %
40 %
30 %
Source: Senate of Berlin,
Department for Economy,
Technology and Research,
July 2015

20 %
10 %
0%

46,920 companies*
in Berlin

238,287 employees**
in Brandenburg

28.3 revenue
(in billion euros)*
* as of 2011
** as of 2012

27

Section 7: Business Clusters in Berlin-Brandenburg

Transport, mobility and logistics industries cluster in Berlin and Brandenburg
100 %

49

51

41

90 %
80 %
70 %
60 %

59

50 %

49

51

17,589 companies*

192,412 employees**

40 %
30 %
Source: Senate of Berlin,
Department for Economy,
Technology and Research,
July 2015

20 %
10 %
0%

in Brandenburg

in Berlin

31.9 revenue
(in billion euros)*
* as of 2012
** as of 2013

Optical industries cluster (including microsystems engineering)
in Berlin and Brandenburg
100 %

41

31

40

90 %
80 %
70 %

69

60 %

60

59

50 %
40 %
30 %
Source: Senate of Berlin,
Department for Economy,
Technology and Research,
July 2015

20 %
10 %
0%

1,531 companies*
in Berlin

17,242 employees**
in Brandenburg

2.1 revenue
(in billion euros)*
* as of 2012
** as of 2013

28

Power engineering cluster in Berlin and Brandenburg
100 %

49

36

27

90 %
80 %
70 %

73
64

60 %
50 %

51

40 %
30 %
Source: Senate of Berlin,
Department for Economy,
Technology and Research,
July 2015

20 %
10 %
0%

6,318 companies*
in Berlin

56,483 employees**
in Brandenburg

30.1 revenue
(in billion euros)*
* as of 2012
** as of 2013

29

Section 8: Berlin education

Top ten sales and other training occupations* 2014
at the CCI Berlin
Retail management assistant (m/f)
15 %

Hotel industry expert (m/f)
Management assistant for
office communication (m/f)

33 %
10 %

Chef (m/f)
Salesperson (m/f)

17,337

Office manager (m/f)
10%

3%
3%
4%

6%

Management assistant in
wholesale and foreign trade (m/f)
Real estate management assistant (m/f)

6%
4%

Source: CCI Berlin,
January 2015

Industrial management assistant (m/f)

Banking professional (m/f)

6%

other sales occupations
* Share in total number of sales and other training occupations

Top ten commercial-technical training occupations* 2014
at the CCI Berlin
Specialized computer scientist (m/f)
14 %

Mechatronics technician (m/f)
Electronics technician (m/f)

32 %

Industrial mechanic (m/f)
12 %

6,557

Digital and print media designer (m/f)
11 %

3%
3%

Event technician (m/f)
Metal cutting mechanic (m/f)
Automotiv mechatronics technician (m/f)

4%

Source: CCI Berlin,
January 2015

Electronics technician for information and
telecommunications systems (m/f)

4%

10 %
4%

5%

Chemical laboratory technician (m/f)
other commercial-technical occupations
* Share in total number of commercial-technical occupations

30

Recognition of foreign vocational qualifications
at the CCI Berlin, report for 1 April, 2012* until the end of February, 2015
Countries of origin and occupations of foreign training (CCI Berlin)
About 2,400 consultations for more than 3,600 people since 1 April, 2012.
Those seeking recognition underwent training in about 95 different countries.
Poland, Russia and Turkey are the most prominent countries in this regard.
The main occupational groups have been office and electrical occupations.
Applicants‘ main reason usually was to return to employment in a job matching their qualifications.

Applications from CCI Berlin district covered by to IHK FOSA (Foreign Skills Approval)
Number of recognition rulings

435
320

Full equivalence

185

Partial equivalence

135

Source: CCI Berlin,
January 2015

*when the Professional Qualifications Assessment Act-BQFG-entered into force

Recognition of foreign vocational qualifications
at the Chamber of Skilled Crafts Berlin, report for 1 April, 2012* until the end of February, 2015
Countries of origin and occupations of foreign training (Chamber of Skilled Crafts Berlin)
About 750 consultations have been carried out for more than 950 people since 1 April, 2012.
Those seeking recognition underwent training in about 35 different countries.
Poland, Greece, Spain and Turkey are the most prominent countries in this regard.
The main occupational groups were electrical engineering, automotive engineering and joiner.
In our function as a management chamber for Turkey about 50 expert evidences has been done.
Applicants’ main reason usually was to enter employment, return to employment or to practise the trade they had learned.

Applications received by the Chamber of Skilled Crafts Berlin

96
Number of recognition rulings

44**

Full equivalence
relates to the following occupations: Hairdresser, Beautician, Optician, Electronics technicians, Information electronics,
Motor vehicle mecha­tronics technician, Motor vehicle body and vehicle construction mechanic, Dental technician, Vehicle
spray painter, Plant mechanic

15

Partial equivalence
relates to the following occupations: Plant mechanic, Dental technician, Electronics technicians, Metalworker, Joiner,
Confectioner, Motor vehicle mechatronics technician, Mechatronics Technician for Refrigeration Technology

25

Source: Chamber of
Skilled Crafts Berlin,
January 2015

Countries of origin of immigrants granted full or partial equivalence by the Chamber of Skilled Crafts Berlin: Poland, Spain, Turkey, Greece,
Italy, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, Latvia, Finland,
Tunisia, Morocco, Syria, Honduras, Australia
*when the Professional Qualifications Assessment Act-BQFG-entered into force
** four rejections

31

Section 9: Science location Berlin

Science institutions in Berlin
number of universities and non-university research institutions
public universities
4
art schools
5
universities of applied sciences
7
private universities

Source: Senate of Berlin,
Department for Education,
Youth and Science, July
2014; Technology Foundation Berlin, February 2013

26
non-university research institutes
67

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Public and private R&D staff 2013*
share of employees subject to compulsory social insurance by federal state, full-time equivalents
3.5 %
3.0 %
2.5 %

2.56

2.0 %
Source: Federal Statistical
Office of Germany, Donors‘
association for the promotion of humanities and
sciences in Germany,
Federal Employment
Agency of Germany,
July 2015

1.98

1.5 %
1.20

1.0 %
0.5 %
0.0 %

ST

MV

SL

BB

SH

TH

NW

RP

HH

NI

SN

DE

HE

HB

BY

BE

BW

* full-time equivalents
abbreviations see page 45

32

R&D staff in the private sector 2013
in Berlin and Germany by research intensity of economic sector
Berlin

Germany

10 %

15 %
24 %

11,408

14 %

43 %

360,375

35 %

Source: Donors‘ association for the promotion of
humanities and sciences in
Germany, July 2015

47 %

12 %

advanced technology (more than 9 % R&D expenditure/revenue)

knowledge-intensive services

high-quality technology (3-9 % R&D expenditure/revenue)

miscellaneous

Total percentages may be more or less than 100 % owing to rounding up and down.

R&D expenditures in the private sector 2013
in Berlin and Germany by research intensity of economic sector
Berlin

Germany

10 %

12 %
25 %

12 %
23 %

53,566 m euros

1,682 m euros
57 %

11 %
51 %

advanced technology (more than 9 % R&D expenditure/revenue)

knowledge-intensive services

high-quality technology (3-9 % R&D expenditure/revenue)

miscellaneous

Source: Donors‘ association for the promotion of
humanities and sciences in
Germany, July 2015

Total percentages may be more or less than 100 % owing to rounding up and down.

33

Section 9: Science location Berlin

R&D in Berlin’s SMEs and large companies 2011 and 2013
expenditure on R&D (in million euros) / R&D staff
100 %

1,047

1,360

7,474

7,104

90 %

60 %
50 %
40 %
30 %
Source: Donors‘ association for the promotion of
humanities and sciences in
Germany, July 2015

20 %

354

4,237

R&D staff

70 %

R&D expenditures

80 %

3,934

322

10 %
0%

2011
small businesses*

2013

2011

2013

large businesses*
*Small and medium enterprises (SME) encompass enterprises up to 249 empolyees.
Companies that exceed this number are referred to as large businesses.

A spirit of innovation benefits businesses regardless of size
Innovations are generally the product of research
and development. So spending a lot on investment and staffing in its R&D division is likely to
have a positive impact on the innovative capacity of a business. Berlin’s economy depends
largely on its medium-sized sector: enterprises
employing fewer than 250 people. Yet some 80
percent (approx. 1.3 billion euros) of the total
funding dedicated to R&D by companies in
Berlin is invested by those with 250 or more
employees. Moreover, in terms of the number of
people working in R&D, there is a clear preponderance in favour of large companies. Despite the
economic structure of the capital, with its heavy
reliance on small and medium-sized businesses,
these figures are hardly surprising, because

34

unlike SMEs large companies are usually in a
position to maintain their own R&D divisions.
Whilst, even in absolute terms, large companies
have increased their R&D expenditure and staff
numbers since 2011, it comes somewhat as a
surprise that R&D investment and employment
at SME level showed a decline, also in absolute
terms, between 2011 and 2013. Thus investment
in R&D in Berlin’s SMEs fell by approx. 32 million
euros from 2011 to 2013. What’s more, the
equivalent of more than three hundred full-time
jobs were lost in the R&D divisions of SMEs. This
seems particularly astonishing given the many
new start-ups in Berlin, which have clearly been
unable to offset the downward trend in R&D at
SMEs.

Students from abroad by federal state
90,000

27 %

80,000

24 %

70,000

21 %
17.1 %

18 %

14.4 %

50,000

15 %
12 %

30,000

9%

29,255

40,000

20,000

6%
3%

10,000
0

MV

SH

SL

HB

TH

ST

BB

students from abroad

HH

RP

SN

NI

BE

share

60,000

HE

BY

BW NW

0%

Source: Federal Statistical
Office of Germany,
March 2015

share of students from abroad
abbreviations see page 45

Third-party funds raised per professor by federal state 2012
in euros
400,000
350,000

279,760

300,000
250,000
198,600

200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0

RP

ST

MV

SH

at universities*

SL

BB

Source: Federal Statistical Office of Germany,
November 2014

21,460

71,130

students from abroad

as of winter semester 2014/15

HE

HH

TH

NI

NW DE

BY

BE

HB BW SN

at universities of applied sciences**
* excluding medical institutes/health care sciences
** excluding public administration colleges
abbreviations see page 45

35

Section 9: Science location Berlin

Patent applications by federal state, 2014
per 100,000 inhabitants
150

120

90

60

Source: Federal Statistical
Office of Germany,
September 2014

30
25

0

ST

MV

BB

SH

SL

HB

SN

BE

TH

RP

HE

NI

NW

HH

BY

BW

abbreviations see page 45

University-spin-offs in Berlin-Brandenburg*
per annum
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
Source: Technology Foundation Berlin, July 2014

10
0

1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013
*ten major universities surveyed in Berlin and Brandenburg

36

Section 10: Foreign trade in Berlin

Berlin imports by top-ten commodity groups 2014
in million euros
communications equipment – 516.4
shoes – 478.0
power machines (except aircraft,
vehicle and cycle engines) – 388.2
electricity production and
distribution equipment – 378.6
3,554 m euros

chassis, engines and other parts
for motor vehicles – 315.9
medical equipment and
orthopaedic appliances – 283.7
vehicles, n.e.c. – 220.0
returned goods– 213.4
basic pharmaceutical products – 204.2
other non-allocated goods – 544.9

Source: Federal Statistical
Office of Germany,
July 2015

Berlin exports by top-ten commodity groups 2014
in million euros

7,670 m euros

basic pharmaceutical products – 1,342.4
electricity production and
distribution equipment – 1,230.9
vehicles n.e.c. – 1,033.1
power machines (except aircraft,
vehicle and cycle engines) – 841.5
raw tobacco and tobacco products – 811.3
medical equipment and
orthopaedic appliances – 639.8
chassis, engines and other parts
for motor vehicles – 518.1
communications equipment – 438.5
petroleum products – 428.8
measurement, control and monitoring
technology products – 385.6

Source: Federal Statistical
Office of Germany,
July 2015

37

Section 10: Foreign trade in Berlin

Berlin imports by country 2013/2014
in million euros
1,600
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
Source: Federal Statistical
Office of Germany,
July 2015

200
0
Czech
Republic

Austria

2013

United Switzerland
Kingdom

China

USA

France

Netherlands

Poland

Italy

United
Kingdom

China

Netherlands

France

Poland

USA

2014

Berlin exports by country 2013/2014
in million euros
1,600
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
Source: Federal Statistical
Office of Germany,
July 2015

200
0
Czech
Republic

2013
38

SaudiArabia

Italy

2014

Russian
Federation

Export ratio by federal state 2014
exports in percent of GDP
60 %
50 %
40 %

39

30 %
20 %
10 %
0%

21

Source: Federal Statistical
Office of Germany,
May 2015,
own calculations

11

BE

MV

BB

SH

HE

TH

ST

NW

NI

BY

SN

RP

DE

SL

BW HH

HB

abbreviations see page 45

Berlin still holds the wooden spoon
It is not by accident that Germany has been
awarded the title of the world‘s champion
exporter: its export rate tends to be high, fluctuating between 34 and 41 percent in the last
six years. The graph provides an overview of
Germany’s export rate and those of its federal
states. One can hardly fail to notice that both
Berlin and Brandenburg lie well below the national average. Berlin has staunchly occupied the
bottom place in Germany since 2008, with rates
which have wavered between eleven and thirteen percent. Brandenburg too is stuck in the
bottom third, with export rates of between 20
and 24 percent. It is hardly surprising that the
top places in the rankings go to the port cities of
Bremen and Hamburg, which continue to dominate the table as in previous years. The wide

discrepancy between Berlin and the two Hanseatic cities is also reflected in the different types
of goods which tend to be exported by Berlin
and the top performer, Bremen: whilst Berlin’s
most important category of export products lies
in the pharmaceutical and (high) tech sector p. 65,
Bremen mainly exports motor vehicles, metals
and feedstuffs. Yet Berlin and Bremen do have
one thing in common: for both federal states,
the USA is by far the most important export
market p. 66. The development and production of
modern technologies in innovative sectors such
as the healthcare and energy industries offer
Berlin major opportunities to open up more
new export markets in developing and emerging
countries in the years to come.

39

Section 11: Berlin-Brandenburg

Population development in Berlin conurbation* 2004-2014
census 2011

3,466,164

4,245,868
3,387,828

4,000,000

3,000,000

4,397,433

5,000,000

2,000,000

931,269

1,000,000
858,040

Source: Berlin-Brandenburg State Office for
Statistics, June 2015,
own calculations

0

2004

2005

2006

Berlin

2007

2008

2009

Berlin outer conurbation

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014**

Berlin conurbation
* explanations see page 44f
**as of: 30 November, 2014

Taxable turnover in Berlin and Brandenburg, 2005 and 2013
in billion euros
250
226

200
194

150

150
128

100
77

Source: Berlin-Brandenburg State Office for
Statistics, March 2015,
own calculations

60

50

0

21

Berlin
2005

Berlin conurbation*

Brandenburg*

32

Berliner outer
conurbation*

39

45

outer
Brandenburg*

2013
*explanations see page 44f

40

Unemployment rate in Berlin and Brandenburg as of June 2015
in percent, based on civilian labour force
14 %
12 %
10 %

10.5

10.0

9.4

8%

8.3

6%
5.5

5.5

4%
Source: Federal Employment Agency of Germany,
June 2015

2%
0%

Berlin

Berlin outer
Berlin
conurbation* conurbation*

Berlin outer
outer
Brandenburg*
conurbation* Brandenburg*
 *explanations see page 44f

Increasing employment in Berlin has an impact beyond the city itself
Given Berlin’s special role as a capital, a metropolis and a city state, it makes little sense to
consider its labour market in isolation from
the surrounding area. Thus creating jobs in
Berlin has beneficial repercussions on employment well beyond the city boundaries. In June
2015, Berlin’s unemployment rate stood at 10.5
percent; in absolute terms, this translates to a
jobless total of 191,613. In this respect, Berlin
continues to lag behind the state of Brandenburg (8.3 percent, or 109,860 people out of
work). But this comparison is misleading, as
evidenced by the figures for Berlin’s outer conurbation – also known as hinterland – and outer

Brandenburg p. 39. The hinterland of Berlin, i.e.,
the communities in the state of Brandenburg
which encircle Berlin and are home to many of
its commuters, have an unemployment rate of
just 5.5 percent. So the aggregate unemployment
rate for the urban area of Berlin – the state itself
and its hinterland – stands at 9.4 percent. And if
one considers the outer Brandenburg (Brandenburg excluding Berlin’s hinterland), whose 10.0
percent unemployment rate lies well above the
state’s average, then the importance of Berlin’s
hinterland for the labour market in Brandenburg
becomes readily apparent.

41

The symbiotic relationship between Berlin and Brandenburg

The territories of Berlin and Brandenburg are spatially interdependent. Berlin’s hinterland in particular, popularly referred to as the capital’s ‘spare tyre’, forms a symbiotic whole with the metropolitan
area. This hinterland is home to 154,000 of Berlin’s commuters, while nearly 67,000 Berliners are
employed there. Companies which need more for expansion than they can not find in the city often
invest in sites here. The burgeoning economic powerhouse of the metropolis is having an extremely
positive impact on the labour market in surrounding communities: with a jobless rate of just over five
percent, there is practically full employment in the region. Berlin and its hinterland constitute the
driving force behind the economy in eastern Germany, which is proceeding full steam ahead and is
also having a knock-on effect on the rural areas of Brandenburg. For instance, tourism in the state of
Brandenburg benefits from city-dwellers and visitors to Berlin, who find in Brandenburg the peaceful
and recuperative antithesis to the noise and bustle of the metropolis.

Gross value added in Berlin and Brandenburg 2014
in billion euros, by economic sector
economic sector

Berlin

Brandenburg

manufacturing*

13,144

12,386

4,152

3,905

trade, transportation and warehousing, accomodation and
food service activities, information and communication

22,504

9,518

finance, insurance and business services,
real estate activities

32,948

13,880

public and other service providers, education and health,
private households

32,729

15,982

construction

* including agriculture, forestry and fisheries

Economic structure in Berlin and Brandenburg 2014
gross value added by economic sector, in percent
economic sector

Berlin

Brandenburg

12.6

22.3

3.9

7.0

trade, transportation and warehousing, accomodation and
food service activities, information and communication

21.3

17.1

finance, insurance and business services,
real estate activities

31.2

24.9

public and other service providers, education and health,
private households

31.0

28.7

manufacturing*
construction

* including agriculture, forestry and fisheries

Private R&D expenditures per R&D employee 2013
federal state
Berlin
Brandenburg

42

euros
147,440
87,350

29

20,668

number of relocations to
the Berlin outer conurbation

17,365 euros

net increase of enterprises
per 10,000 inhabitants in Berlin

state debt per capita
in Berlin

-3

13,688

8,268 euros

net increase of enterprises
state debt per capita
per 10,000 inhabitants
in Brandenburg
in Brandenburg
MecklenburgWestern Pomerania

number of relocations
to Berlin

Uckermark
Prignitz
OstprignitzRuppin

3,466,164
Berlin's population

Oberhavel

Lower
Saxony

MärkischOderland

Havelland

2,464,400

P-M

Brandenburg's population

POLAND

Barnim

Berlin
P

B

F

Berlin outer conurbation*

SaxonyAnhalt
B
C
F
P

Brandenburg an der Havel
Cottbus
Frankfurt (Oder)
Potsdam

PotsdamMittelmark

Oder-Spree
TeltowFläming

11.1 %

Dahme-Spreewald

ElbeElster

unemployment rate
in Berlin

OberspreewaldLausitz

C

Spree-Neiße

9.4 %

unemployment rate
in Brandenburg

Saxony

31,504 euros
gross domestic product
per capita
in Berlin

Berlin
Brandenburg
* geographical terms relating to the region are explained on p. 44f

24,231 euros
gross domestic product
per capita
in Brandenburg

78,284

commuters to Brandenburg

193,915

Einwohner
in Brandenburg
commuters
from
Brandenburg
43

Explanations

Geographical terms relating to the
region*
Berlin is a city-state, one of the German federal
states.
The Berlin outer conurbation is comprised of
Potsdam (a county borough), the boroughs of
Ahrensfelde, Bernau bei Berlin, Panketal, Wandlitz and Werneuchen from the District of Barnim, the boroughs of Eichwalde, Königs Wusterhausen, Mittenwalde, Schönefeld, Schulzendorf,
Wildau and Zeuthen from the District of Dahme-Spreewald, the boroughs of Brieselang, Dallgow-Döberitz, Falkensee, Schönwalde-Glien and
Wustermark from the District of Havelland, the
boroughs of Altlandsberg, Fredersdorf-Vogelsdorf, Hoppegarten, Neuenhagen bei Berlin, Petershagen/Eggersdorf, Rüdersdorf bei Berlin and
Strausberg from the District of Märkisch-Oderland, the boroughs of Birkenwerder, Glienicke/
Nordbahn, Hennigsdorf, Hohen Neuendorf, Leegebruch, Mühlenbecker Land, Oberkrämer, Oranienburg and Velten from the District of Oberhavel, the boroughs of Erkner, Gosen-Neu Zittau,
Grünheide (Mark), Schöneiche bei Berlin and
Woltersdorf from the District of Oder-Spree,
the boroughs of Kleinmachnow, Michendorf,
Nuthetal, Schwielowsee, Stahnsdorf, Teltow and
Werder (Havel) from the District of PotsdamMittelmark as well as the boroughs of Blankenfelde-Mahlow, Großbeeren, Ludwigsfelde and
Rangsdorf from the District of Teltow-Fläming.
The Berlin conurbation encompasses the State
of Berlin and the outer conurbation.

* Terms analogue to
definition in 2009 State
Development Plan of
Berlin-Brandenburg
44

Outer Brandenburg is comprised of the towns
Brandenburg, Cottbus, Frankfurt (Oder), the
Districts of Elbe-Elster, Oberspreewald-Lausitz,
Ostprignitz-Ruppin, Prignitz, Spree-Neiße and
Uckermark as well as the boroughs of Althüttendorf, Biesenthal Stadt, Breydin, Britz, Chorin,
Eberswalde Stadt, Friedrichswalde, Hohenfinow,
Hohensaaten, Joachimsthal Stadt, Liepe, LunowStolzenhagen, Marienwerder, Melchow, Niederfinow, Oderberg Stadt, Parsteinsee, Rüdnitz,
Schorfheide, Sydower Fließ and Ziethen from the
District of Barnim, the boroughs of Alt ZaucheWußwerk, Bersteland, Bestensee, Byhleguhre-

Byhlen, Drahnsdorf, Golßen Stadt, Groß Köris,
Halbe, Heideblick, Heidesee, Jamlitz, Kasel-Golzig, Krausnick-Groß Wasserburg, Lieberose Stadt,
Lübben (Spreewald) Stadt, Luckau Stadt, Märkisch Buchholz Stadt, Märkische Heide, Münchehofe, Neu Zauche, Rietzneuendorf-Staakow,
Schlepzig, Schönwald, Schwerin, Schwielochsee,
Spreewaldheide, Steinreich, Straupitz, Teupitz
Stadt and Unterspreewald from the District of
Dahme-Spreewald, the boroughs of Friesack
Stadt, Gollenberg, Großderschau, Havelaue,
Ketzin, Kleßen-Görne, Kotzen, Märkisch Luch,
Milower Land, Mühlenberge, Nauen, Nennhausen, Paulinenaue, Pessin, Premnitz Stadt, Rathenow Stadt, Retzow, Rhinow Stadt, Seeblick,
Stechow-Ferchesar and Wiesenaue from the
District of Havelland, the boroughs of Alt Tucheband, Bad Freienwalde (Oder) Stadt, Beiers­
dorf-Freudenberg, Bleyen-Genschmar, Bliesdorf,
Buckow (Märkische Schweiz) Stadt, Falkenberg,
Falkenhagen (Mark), Fichtenhöhe, Garzau-Garzin,
Golzow, Gusow-Platkow, Heckelberg Brunow,
Höhenland, Küstriner Vorland, Lebus Stadt, Letschin, Lietzen, Lindendorf, Märkische Höhe, Müncheberg Stadt, Neuhardenberg, Neulewin, Neutrebbin, Oberbarnim, Oderaue, Podelzig, Prötzel,
Rehfelde, Reichenow-Möglin, Reitwein, Seelow
Stadt, Treplin, Vierlinden, Waldsieversdorf, Wriezen Stadt, Zechin and Zeschdorf from the District
of Märkisch-Oderland, the boroughs of Fürstenberg/Havel Stadt, Gransee Stadt, Großwoltersdorf, Kremmen, Liebenwalde Stadt, Löwenberger
Land, Schönermark, Sonnenberg, Stechlin and
Zehdenick Stadt from the District of Oberhavel,
the boroughs of Bad Saarow, Beeskow Stadt, Berkenbrück, Briesen (Mark), Brieskow-Finkenheerd,
Diensdorf-Radlow, Eisenhüttenstadt Stadt, Friedland Stadt, Fürstenwalde/Spree, Groß Lindow,
Grunow-Dammendorf, Jacobsdorf, Langewahl,
Lawitz, Madlitz-Wilmersdorf, Mixdorf, Müllrose
Stadt, Neißemünde, Neuzelle, Ragow-Merz, Rauen, Reichenwalde, Rietz-Neuendorf, Schlaubetal,
Siehdichum, Spreenhagen, Steinhöfel, Storkow
(Mark) Stadt, Tauche, Vogelsang, Wendisch Rietz,
Wiesenau and Ziltendorf from the District of
Oder-Spree, the boroughs of Beelitz, Beetzsee,
Beetzseeheide, Belzig Stadt, Bensdorf, Borkheide, Borkwalde, Brück Stadt, Buckautal, Golzow,
Görzke, Gräben, Havelsee Stadt, Kloster Lehnin,
Linthe, Mühlenfließ, Niemegk Stadt, Päwesin,

terbog Stadt, Luckenwalde Stadt, Niedergörsdorf,
Niederer Fläming, Nuthe-Urstromtal, Trebbin and
Zossen from the District of Teltow Fläming.

Planebruch, Planetal, Groß Kreutz (Havel), Rabenstein/Fläming, Rosenau, Roskow, Seddiner
See, Treuenbrietzen Stadt, Wenzlow, Wiesenburg/Mark, Wollin, Wusterwitz and Ziesar Stadt
from the District of Potsdam-Mittelmark and
the boroughs of Am Mellensee, Baruth/Mark
Stadt, Dahme/Mark Stadt, Dahmetal, Ihlow, Jü-

Brandenburg encompasses the Berlin outer conurbation and outer Brandenburg.

Abbrevations
BE	Berlin
BB	Brandenburg
BW	Baden-Wuerttemberg
BY	Bavaria
DE	Germany
HB	Bremen
HE	Hesse

Uckermark

HH	Hamburg
MV	Mecklenburg-Western
Pomerania

Prignitz
OstprignitzRuppin

NI	

Oberhavel

Lower Saxony

NW	 North Rhine-Westphalia

Barnim

RP	Rhineland-Palatinate
SH	Schleswig-Holstein
SL	Saarland

MärkischOderland

Havelland

SN	Saxony
ST	Saxony-Anhalt
TH	Thuringia

P-M

B
C
F
P

Brandenburg an der Havel
Cottbus
Frankfurt (Oder)
Potsdam

B

P
F
Oder-Spree

PotsdamMittelmark
TeltowFläming

Berlin districts
ChWi	CharlottenburgWilmersdorf
FrKr	Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg
Lich	Lichtenberg

Dahme-Spreewald

MaHe	Marzahn-Hellersdorf
Mitt	Mitte

Berlin
Berlin outer conurbation
Berlin conurbation

C
ElbeElster

OberspreewaldLausitz

Neuk	Neukölln
Pank	Pankow

Spree-Neiße

Rein	Reinickendorf
Span	Spandau
StZe	Steglitz-Zehlendorf
TSch	Tempelhof-Schöneberg

Outer Brandenburg

TrKö	Treptow-Köpenick

45

Imprint

Published by
Chamber of Commerce and Industry (CCI) Berlin
Fasanenstraße 85
10623 Berlin
Telephone:	+49 30 31510-0
Telefax: +49 30 31510-166
E-mail: service@berlin.ihk.de
www.ihk-berlin.de
Chamber of Skilled Crafts Berlin
Blücherstraße 68
10961 Berlin
Telephone:	+49 30 25903-01
Telefax: +49 30 25903-235
E-mail: info@hwk-berlin.de
www.hwk-berlin.de
Editorial Deadline
September 2015
Image sources
Cover: 	 © elxeneize - iStockphoto.com
Page 3: 	© ShantiHesse - thinkstock.com

46

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